Looking at work-family conflict resolution in dual-earning couples with dependent children, this paper argues that work-family decision making proceed in two ways: through ‘anchoring’ decisions – major choices that establish a framework, for ‘daily’ decisions.
Taking up flexible working may be viewed as an anchoring decision, which draws upon and impacts the decision-making framework and daily decisions. The authors thus argue that work-family conflicts must be approached in the context of past events. The paper also provides evidence as to how the impact of flexible work can differ depending on the context of households – how flexible your partner’s work is.
Radcliffe, Laura; Cassell, Catherine (2014) “Resolving couples’ work–family conflicts: The complexity of decision making and the introduction of a new framework” Human Relations, 67(7)
Using the European Labour Force Survey, this report notes wide variation in working schedule flexibility across Europe – from 10% in Romania, to over 60% in the Netherlands and the UK. They argue that GDP per capita is a major predictor of the availability of work schedule flexibility.
They also analysed which social groups report the availability of flexible working. Women and young people reported less access to working schedule flexibility, while those aged over 60 reported greater access. Those with supervisory responsibility, higher-levels of education or with employment permanent contracts were more likely to report the availability of flexible working that their counterparts.
Präg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda (2014) Family-Related Working Schedule Flexibility Across Europe #6, Prepared for European Commission Directorate Justice and Fundamental Rights
Using Dutch panel data, the author argues that flexitime increases work-life balance and job satisfaction. However, teleworking improves only job satisfaction, and part-time only working-time fit.
The author also finds that remote working may harm careers since fewer promotions and employer-paid trainings are awarded to regular can i order tramadol teleworkers. In their analysis of absenteeism, they demonstrate that schedule and location flexibility decrease the frequency and length of sickness absences.
Possenriede, Daniel (2014) The Economics of Temporal and Locational Flexibility of Work, Ph.D Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht
This report consider time adequacy, that is, the fit between working time and all other time demands.
It demonstrates that working time flexibility and autonomy are positively associated with time adequacy. Performance-related payments and target setting are each associated with employees experiencing time squeeze. Moreover, the author argues that performance-related pay undermines the positive effect of working time autonomy.
Lott, Yvonne (2014) “Working Time Autonomy and Time Adequacy: What if performance is all that counts?” Institute of Economic and Social Research (WSI) Diskussionspapier 188, Hans-Böckler-Foundation, Düsseldorf
While the authors note that flexible work can improve job satisfaction and worker commitment to employers, they go on to point out that it can also lead to the intensification of work.
Looking at workers that have reduced hours or work remotely, the authors propose three means by which intensification proceeds:
intensification as an act of reciprocation or exchange
They argue that the paradox between increased cheap tramadol free delivery work intensification, and reported increases in job satisfaction and organisational commitment may be explained by employees trading flexibility for effort, that is, employees ‘respond to the ability to work flexibly by exerting additional effort, in order to return benefit to their employer’.
Kelliher, Clare; Anderson, Deirdre (2010) “Doing more with less? Flexible working practices and the intensification of work” Human Relations, 63(1)
Using a sample of 1,893 companies across 15 countries, the authors examine the relationship between public expenditure on national family-leave policies, employment legislation and culture, and use of flexible working.
They find that these three areas of expenditure influence the use of flexible working, but that this depends on both anyone order tramadol online context and type of flexible working. As such, they stress that researchers should consider both the national and institutional environments when designing and interpreting research on flexible working.
Kassinis, George I.; Stavrou, Eleni T. (2013) “Non-standard work arrangements and national context” European Management Journal, 31
The author proposes that employees with less schedule control than their peers will be less satisfied with and committed to their employers.
They argue, therefore, that this provides evidence for the existence of socialised aspects of schedule control and suggest this may have implications for organizations in their management of flexibility among workers.
McAlpine, Kirstie (2014) The Ripple Effect of Schedule Control: A Social Network Approach, MA Thesis, Cornell University
This article demonstrates that the blurring of boundaries between work and private life is asymmetrical. It notes that work is integrated much more into private life than vice versa.
This is despite employee preference for keeping their work out of their buy 40 mg levitra private lives.
The authors approach this issue by looking at overtime, organizational culture and autonomy.
Janke, Ines; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Scheibe, Susanne (2014) “Verschwimmen die Grenzen? Auswirkungen von Vertrauensarbeitszeit auf die Schnittstelle von Arbeit und Privatleben” Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 68(2)
Golden notes that distribution of flexible schedules among workers is quite uneven. It will depends on demographic and job characteristics of workers, including gender, race, education level, occupation, employment, and usual work hours.
Access to flexible working remains uneven by sector and is not equally shared across individuals. It is less likely for nonwhites, women, unmarried persons, those with relatively less education, and those employed in the public sector. It is higher in many of the occupations and industries with generally higher skills and lower unemployment.
Golden, Lonnie (2001) “Flexible Work Schedules: What Are We Trading Off to Get Them” Monthly Labor Review, March